Wilhelm ll

wilhelm ll

März Kaiser Wilhelm II., Biographie, Lebenslauf, Steckbrief des letzten deutschen Kaisers in Bildern. "Zu Großem sind wir noch bestimmt, und herrlichen Tagen führe ich euch noch entgegen." Ein großes Versprechen des deutschen Kaisers Wilhelm II, der die. Wilhelm II., mit vollem Namen Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Preußen, (* Januar in Berlin; † 4. Juni in Doorn, Niederlande) aus dem Haus.

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Se brugsbetingelserne for flere oplysninger. Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert. Ridder af Elefantordenen Carl Friedrich af Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach.

Victoria af Storbritannien There were two versions of the speech. The Foreign Office issued an edited version, making sure to omit one particularly incendiary paragraph that they regarded as diplomatically embarrassing.

Great overseas tasks have fallen to the new German Empire, tasks far greater than many of my countrymen expected. The German Empire has, by its very character, the obligation to assist its citizens if they are being set upon in foreign lands.

The tasks that the old Roman Empire of the German nation was unable to accomplish, the new German Empire is in a position to fulfill. The means that make this possible is our army.

It has been built up during thirty years of faithful, peaceful labor, following the principles of my blessed grandfather. You, too, have received your training in accordance with these principles, and by putting them to the test before the enemy, you should see whether they have proved their worth in you.

Your comrades in the navy have already passed this test; they have shown that the principles of your training are sound, and I am also proud of the praise that your comrades have earned over there from foreign leaders.

It is up to you to emulate them. A great task awaits you: The Chinese have overturned the law of nations; they have mocked the sacredness of the envoy, the duties of hospitality in a way unheard of in world history.

It is all the more outrageous that this crime has been committed by a nation that takes pride in its ancient culture. Show the old Prussian virtue.

Present yourselves as Christians in the cheerful endurance of suffering. May honor and glory follow your banners and arms. Give the whole world an example of manliness and discipline.

You know full well that you are to fight against a cunning, brave, well-armed, and cruel enemy. When you encounter him, know this: Prisoners will not be taken.

Exercise your arms such that for a thousand years no Chinese will dare to look cross-eyed at a German.

Open the way to civilization once and for all! Now you may depart! Should you encounter the enemy, he will be defeated!

No quarter will be given! Prisoners will not be taken! Whoever falls into your hands is forfeited. Just as a thousand years ago the Huns under their King Attila made a name for themselves, one that even today makes them seem mighty in history and legend, may the name German be affirmed by you in such a way in China that no Chinese will ever again dare to look cross-eyed at a German.

One of Wilhelm's diplomatic blunders sparked the Moroccan Crisis of , when he made a spectacular visit to Tangier , in Morocco on March 31, He conferred with representatives of Sultan Abdelaziz of Morocco.

The Kaiser declared he had come to support the sovereignty of the Sultan—a statement which amounted to a provocative challenge to French influence in Morocco.

The Sultan subsequently rejected a set of French-proposed governmental reforms and issued invitations to major world powers to a conference which would advise him on necessary reforms.

The Kaiser's presence was seen as an assertion of German interests in Morocco, in opposition to those of France. In his speech, he even made remarks in favour of Moroccan independence, and this led to friction with France, which had expanding colonial interests in Morocco, and to the Algeciras Conference , which served largely to further isolate Germany in Europe.

Wilhelm's most damaging personal blunder cost him much of his prestige and power and had a far greater impact in Germany than overseas.

Wilhelm had seen the interview as an opportunity to promote his views and ideas on Anglo-German friendship, but due to his emotional outbursts during the course of the interview, he ended up further alienating not only the British, but also the French, Russians, and Japanese.

He implied, among other things, that the Germans cared nothing for the British; that the French and Russians had attempted to incite Germany to intervene in the Second Boer War ; and that the German naval buildup was targeted against the Japanese, not Britain.

One memorable quotation from the interview was, "You English are mad, mad, mad as March hares. Wilhelm kept a very low profile for many months after the Daily Telegraph fiasco, but later exacted his revenge by forcing the resignation of the chancellor, Prince Bülow, who had abandoned the Emperor to public scorn by not having the transcript edited before its German publication.

He lost much of the influence he had previously exercised in domestic and foreign policy. Nothing Wilhelm did in the international arena was of more influence than his decision to pursue a policy of massive naval construction.

A powerful navy was Wilhelm's pet project. He had inherited from his mother a love of the British Royal Navy , which was at that time the world's largest.

He once confided to his uncle, the Prince of Wales , that his dream was to have a "fleet of my own some day". Wilhelm's frustration over his fleet's poor showing at the Fleet Review at his grandmother Queen Victoria 's Diamond Jubilee celebrations, combined with his inability to exert German influence in South Africa following the dispatch of the Kruger telegram , led to Wilhelm taking definitive steps toward the construction of a fleet to rival that of his British cousins.

Wilhelm was fortunate to be able to call on the services of the dynamic naval officer Alfred von Tirpitz , whom he appointed to the head of the Imperial Naval Office in The new admiral had conceived of what came to be known as the "Risk Theory" or the Tirpitz Plan , by which Germany could force Britain to accede to German demands in the international arena through the threat posed by a powerful battlefleet concentrated in the North Sea.

Naval expansion under the Fleet Acts eventually led to severe financial strains in Germany by , as by Wilhelm had committed his navy to construction of the much larger, more expensive dreadnought type of battleship.

In Wilhelm reorganised top level control of the navy by creating a Naval Cabinet Marine-Kabinett equivalent to the German Imperial Military Cabinet which had previously functioned in the same capacity for both the army and navy.

The Head of the Naval Cabinet was responsible for promotions, appointments, administration, and issuing orders to naval forces. Captain Gustav von Senden-Bibran was appointed as the first head and remained so until The existing Imperial admiralty was abolished, and its responsibilities divided between two organisations.

A new position was created, equivalent to the supreme commander of the army: Vice-Admiral Max von der Goltz was appointed in and remained in post until Construction and maintenance of ships and obtaining supplies was the responsibility of the State Secretary of the Imperial Navy Office Reichsmarineamt , responsible to the Imperial Chancellor and advising the Reichstag on naval matters.

Each of these three heads of department reported separately to Wilhelm. In addition to the expansion of the fleet, the Kiel Canal was opened in , enabling faster movements between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea.

Historians typically argue that Wilhelm was largely confined to ceremonial duties during the war--there were innumerable parades to review and honours to award.

Wilhelm was a friend of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , and he was deeply shocked by his assassination on 28 June Wilhelm offered to support Austria-Hungary in crushing the Black Hand , the secret organization that had plotted the killing, and even sanctioned the use of force by Austria against the perceived source of the movement— Serbia this is often called "the blank cheque".

He wanted to remain in Berlin until the crisis was resolved, but his courtiers persuaded him instead to go on his annual cruise of the North Sea on 6 July Wilhelm made erratic attempts to stay on top of the crisis via telegram, and when the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum was delivered to Serbia, he hurried back to Berlin.

He reached Berlin on 28 July, read a copy of the Serbian reply, and wrote on it:. A brilliant solution—and in barely 48 hours!

This is more than could have been expected. A great moral victory for Vienna; but with it every pretext for war falls to the ground, and [the Ambassador] Giesl had better have stayed quietly at Belgrade.

On this document, I should never have given orders for mobilisation. Unknown to the Emperor, Austro-Hungarian ministers and generals had already convinced the year-old Franz Joseph I of Austria to sign a declaration of war against Serbia.

As a direct consequence, Russia began a general mobilization to attack Austria in defense of Serbia. On the night of 30 July, when handed a document stating that Russia would not cancel its mobilization, Wilhelm wrote a lengthy commentary containing these observations:.

For I no longer have any doubt that England, Russia and France have agreed among themselves—knowing that our treaty obligations compel us to support Austria—to use the Austro-Serb conflict as a pretext for waging a war of annihilation against us Our dilemma over keeping faith with the old and honourable Emperor has been exploited to create a situation which gives England the excuse she has been seeking to annihilate us with a spurious appearance of justice on the pretext that she is helping France and maintaining the well-known Balance of Power in Europe, i.

More recent British authors state that Wilhelm II really declared, "Ruthlessness and weakness will start the most terrifying war of the world, whose purpose is to destroy Germany.

Because there can no longer be any doubts, England, France and Russia have conspired themselves together to fight an annihilation war against us".

When it became clear that Germany would experience a war on two fronts and that Britain would enter the war if Germany attacked France through neutral Belgium, the panic-stricken Wilhelm attempted to redirect the main attack against Russia.

When Helmuth von Moltke the younger who had chosen the old plan from , made by General von Schlieffen for the possibility of German war on two fronts told him that this was impossible, Wilhelm said: If my grandmother had been alive, she would never have allowed it.

The plan supposed that it would take a long time before Russia was ready for war. At the border between France and Germany, an attack at this more southern part of France could be stopped by the French fortress along the border.

However, Wilhelm II stopped any invasion of the Netherlands. Wilhelm's role in wartime was one of ever-decreasing power as he increasingly handled awards ceremonies and honorific duties.

The high command continued with its strategy even when it was clear that the Schlieffen plan had failed. Nevertheless, Wilhelm still retained the ultimate authority in matters of political appointment, and it was only after his consent had been gained that major changes to the high command could be effected.

Wilhelm was in favour of the dismissal of Helmuth von Moltke the Younger in September and his replacement by Erich von Falkenhayn. In , Hindenburg and Ludendorff decided that Bethman-Hollweg was no longer acceptable to them as Chancellor and called upon the Kaiser to appoint somebody else.

When asked whom they would accept, Ludendorff recommended Georg Michaelis , a nonentity whom he barely knew. The Kaiser did not know Michaelis, but accepted the suggestion.

Wilhelm was at the Imperial Army headquarters in Spa, Belgium , when the uprisings in Berlin and other centres took him by surprise in late Mutiny among the ranks of his beloved Kaiserliche Marine , the imperial navy, profoundly shocked him.

After the outbreak of the German Revolution , Wilhelm could not make up his mind whether or not to abdicate. Up to that point, he accepted that he would likely have to give up the imperial crown, but still hoped to retain the Prussian kingship.

However, this was impossible under the imperial constitution. While Wilhelm thought he ruled as emperor in a personal union with Prussia, the constitution actually tied the imperial crown to the Prussian crown, meaning that Wilhelm could not renounce one crown without renouncing the other.

Wilhelm's hopes of retaining at least one of his crowns was revealed as unrealistic when, in the hope of preserving the monarchy in the face of growing revolutionary unrest, Chancellor Prince Max of Baden announced Wilhelm's abdication of both titles on 9 November Prince Max himself was forced to resign later the same day, when it became clear that only Friedrich Ebert , leader of the SPD , could effectively exert control.

Later that day, one of Ebert's secretaries of state ministers , Social Democrat Philipp Scheidemann , proclaimed Germany a republic.

Wilhelm consented to the abdication only after Ludendorff's replacement, General Wilhelm Groener , had informed him that the officers and men of the army would march back in good order under Paul von Hindenburg 's command, but would certainly not fight for Wilhelm's throne on the home front.

The monarchy's last and strongest support had been broken, and finally even Hindenburg, himself a lifelong royalist , was obliged, with some embarrassment, to advise the Emperor to give up the crown.

The fact that the High Command might one day abandon the Kaiser had been foreseen in December , when Wilhelm had visited Otto von Bismarck for the last time.

Bismarck had again warned the Kaiser about the increasing influence of militarists, especially of the admirals who were pushing for the construction of a battle fleet.

Bismarck's last warning had been:. Your Majesty, so long as you have this present officer corps, you can do as you please.

But when this is no longer the case, it will be very different for you. Jena came twenty years after the death of Frederick the Great ; the crash will come twenty years after my departure if things go on like this.

On 10 November, Wilhelm crossed the border by train and went into exile in the Netherlands, which had remained neutral throughout the war.

King George V wrote that he looked on his cousin as "the greatest criminal in history", but opposed Prime Minister David Lloyd George 's proposal to "hang the Kaiser".

President Woodrow Wilson of the United States opposed extradition, arguing that prosecuting Wilhelm would destabilize international order and lose the peace.

Wilhelm first settled in Amerongen , where on 28 November he issued a belated statement of abdication from both the Prussian and imperial thrones, thus formally ending the Hohenzollerns' year rule over Prussia.

Accepting the reality that he had lost both of his crowns for good, he gave up his rights to "the throne of Prussia and to the German Imperial throne connected therewith.

The Weimar Republic allowed Wilhelm to remove twenty-three railway wagons of furniture, twenty-seven containing packages of all sorts, one bearing a car and another a boat, from the New Palace at Potsdam.

In , Wilhelm published the first volume of his memoirs [75] —a very slim volume that insisted he was not guilty of initiating the Great War, and defended his conduct throughout his reign, especially in matters of foreign policy.

For the remaining twenty years of his life, he entertained guests often of some standing and kept himself updated on events in Europe. He grew a beard and allowed his famous moustache to droop.

He also learned the Dutch language. Wilhelm developed a penchant for archaeology while residing at the Corfu Achilleion , excavating at the site of the Temple of Artemis in Corfu , a passion he retained in his exile.

He had bought the former Greek residence of Empress Elisabeth after her murder in He also sketched plans for grand buildings and battleships when he was bored.

In exile, one of Wilhelm's greatest passions was hunting, and he bagged thousands of animals, both beast and bird. Much of his time was spent chopping wood and thousands of trees were chopped down during his stay at Doorn.

In the early s, Wilhelm apparently hoped that the successes of the German Nazi Party would stimulate interest in a restoration of the monarchy, with his eldest grandson as the fourth Kaiser.

His second wife, Hermine, actively petitioned the Nazi government on her husband's behalf. However, Adolf Hitler , himself a veteran of the First World War , like other leading Nazis, felt nothing but contempt for the man they blamed for Germany's greatest defeat, and the petitions were ignored.

Though he played host to Hermann Göring at Doorn on at least one occasion, Wilhelm grew to distrust Hitler. Hearing of the murder of the wife of former Chancellor Schleicher , he said "We have ceased to live under the rule of law and everyone must be prepared for the possibility that the Nazis will push their way in and put them up against the wall!

He had the nerve to say that he agreed with the Jewish pogroms and understood why they had come about. When I told him that any decent man would describe these actions as gangsterisms, he appeared totally indifferent.

He is completely lost to our family". He builds legions, but he doesn't build a nation. A nation is created by families, a religion, traditions: For a few months I was inclined to believe in National Socialism.

I thought of it as a necessary fever. And I was gratified to see that there were, associated with it for a time, some of the wisest and most outstanding Germans.

But these, one by one, he has got rid of or even killed He has left nothing but a bunch of shirted gangsters!

This man could bring home victories to our people each year, without bringing them either glory or danger.

But of our Germany, which was a nation of poets and musicians, of artists and soldiers, he has made a nation of hysterics and hermits, engulfed in a mob and led by a thousand liars or fanatics.

In the wake of the German victory over Poland in September , Wilhelm's adjutant, General von Dommes, wrote on his behalf to Hitler, stating that the House of Hohenzollern "remained loyal" and noted that nine Prussian Princes one son and eight grandchildren were stationed at the front, concluding "because of the special circumstances that require residence in a neutral foreign country, His Majesty must personally decline to make the aforementioned comment.

The Emperor has therefore charged me with making a communication. During his last year at Doorn, Wilhelm believed that Germany was the land of monarchy and therefore of Christ, and that England was the land of liberalism and therefore of Satan and the Anti-Christ.

We must drive Juda out of England just as he has been chased out of the Continent. We are becoming the U. No notice is taken of it at home!

No 'Memorial Service' or Nobody of the new generation knows anything about her. Wilhelm died of a pulmonary embolus in Doorn, Netherlands, on 4 June , at the age of 82, just weeks before the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union.

German soldiers had been guarding his house. Hitler, however, was reported [ by whom? Despite his personal animosity toward Wilhelm, Hitler wanted to bring his body back to Berlin for a state funeral, as Wilhelm was a symbol of Germany and Germans during the previous World War.

Hitler felt that such a funeral would demonstrate to the Germans the direct descent of the Third Reich from the old German Empire.

The mourners included August von Mackensen , fully dressed in his old imperial Life Hussars uniform, Admiral Wilhelm Canaris , and Reichskommissar for the Netherlands Arthur Seyss-Inquart , along with a few other military advisers.

However, Wilhelm's request that the swastika and other Nazi regalia be not displayed at his funeral was ignored, and they are featured in the photographs of the event taken by a Dutch photographer.

Wilhelm was buried in a mausoleum in the grounds of Huis Doorn, which has since become a place of pilgrimage for German monarchists. Small but enthusiastic and faithful numbers of them gather there every year on the anniversary of his death to pay their homage to the last German Emperor.

Three trends have characterized the writing about Wilhelm. First, the court-inspired writers considered him a martyr and a hero, often uncritically accepting the justifications provided in the Kaiser's own memoirs.

Second, there came those who judged Wilhelm to be completely unable to handle the great responsibilities of his position, a ruler too reckless to deal with power.

Third, after , later scholars have sought to transcend the passions of the early 20th century and attempted an objective portrayal of Wilhelm and his rule.

On 8 June , a year before the Great War began, The New York Times published a special supplement devoted to the 25th anniversary of the Kaiser's accession.

The banner headline read: The accompanying story called him "the greatest factor for peace that our time can show", and credited Wilhelm with frequently rescuing Europe from the brink of war.

Partly that was a deception by German officials. For example, President Theodore Roosevelt believed the Kaiser was in control of German foreign policy because Hermann Speck von Sternburg , the German ambassador in Washington and a personal friend of Roosevelt, presented to the president messages from Chancellor von Bülow as messages from the Kaiser.

Later historians downplayed his role, arguing that senior officials learned to work around him. More recently historian John C.

Röhl has portrayed Wilhelm as the key figure in understanding the recklessness and downfall of Imperial Germany.

They had seven children:. Empress Augusta, known affectionately as "Dona", was a constant companion to Wilhelm, and her death on 11 April was a devastating blow.

It also came less than a year after their son Joachim committed suicide. Wilhelm found Hermine very attractive, and greatly enjoyed her company.

The couple were wed on 9 November , despite the objections of Wilhelm's monarchist supporters and his children. Hermine remained a constant companion to the aging Emperor until his death.

It was a United Protestant denomination, bringing together Reformed and Lutheran believers. Wilhelm II was on friendly terms with the Muslim world.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Princess Hermine Reuss of Greiz m. An das deutsche Volk. Extract from Wilhelm's public address for mobilization, 6 August Abdication of Wilhelm II.

The Huis Doorn in Huis Doorn in the Netherlands. Frederick William II of Prussia 8. Landgravine Frederica Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt 4.

William I, German Emperor Duchess Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Princess Friederike of Hesse-Darmstadt 2.

Landgravine Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt 5. Princess Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Paul I of Russia Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia Princess Sophie Dorothea of Wurttemberg 1.

Wilhelm II, German Emperor Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Countess Augusta Reuss of Ebersdorf 6. Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Augustus, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg Duchess Louise Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 3.

Victoria, Princess Royal Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn Duchess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 7. Victoria of the United Kingdom Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Alexander Nevsky — Order of St.

Anna , 1st Class — Order of St. Royal Norwegian Order of St. Order of the Liberator , Collar — 4 May Prince and Emperor, pp Emperor and Exile, — Archived from the original on 27 September As reflected in contemporary Arabic journalism" PDF.

Forming a character portrait of Emperor William II. German History in Documents and Images. Retrieved 24 December Entwicklungslinien Volume ed. Schriftenreihe der Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, p.

Into the Abyss of War and Exile, — Boyd, "The Wasted Ten Years, — The Kaiser Finds an Admiral. Emperor and Exile, - Vol.

Emperor and Exile, — , p. A Record of Events and Progress. Retrieved 2 October Conflict, Catastrophe and Continuity: Essays on Modern German History.

Wilhelm Ll Video

Deutsches Reich: Kaiser Wilhelm II. - Gott mit uns (Doku)

Willem II Dutch pronunciation: The team was founded on 12 August as Tilburgia. On 12 January , the club was renamed Willem II , after Dutch king William II of the Netherlands , who, as Prince of Orange and commander of the Dutch army , had his military headquarters in Tilburg during the Belgian uprising of and also spent a lot of time in the city after becoming king and would die while there.

The club's shirt consists of red-white-blue vertical stripes, inspired by the colours of the flag of the Netherlands.

The stadium, opened on 31 May , has a capacity of 14, spectators. The average attendance in —05 was 12, people. The club has won the Eredivisie and the Eerste divisie a total of three times in both respects all in all.

Established on 12 August in Tilburg as Tilburgia, the club first played at the Gemeentelijk Sportpark Tilburg and in relocated to the Koning Willem II Stadion , the ground where they have played ever since.

Willem were champions of the Eredivisie in , and In —99, Willem once again competed in the Cup Winners' Cup and after beating Dinamo Tbilisi of Georgia 6—0 in both legs, Willem then lost to Spanish side Real Betis in the second round, 4—1 on aggregate.

At the tournament's group stage, Willem only attained 2 points in their six group G matches and were thus eliminated. At the end of the —11 season, Willem II were relegated from the Eredivisie for the first time in 24 years.

In the —12 season under new manager Jurgen Streppel Willem II was promoted back to the Eredivisie, but they went right back down the next season after finishing bottom of the table.

The club became champions of the Eerste Divisie in the subsequent season and were thus promoted back to the Eredivisie.

As the debate continued, Wilhelm became more and more interested in social problems, especially the treatment of mine workers who went on strike in He routinely interrupted Bismarck in Council to make clear where he stood on social policy; Bismarck, in turn, sharply disagreed with Wilhelm's policy and worked to circumvent it.

Bismarck, feeling pressured and unappreciated by the young Emperor and undermined by his ambitious advisors, refused to sign a proclamation regarding the protection of workers along with Wilhelm, as was required by the German Constitution.

The final break came as Bismarck searched for a new parliamentary majority, with his Kartell voted from power due to the anti-Socialist bill fiasco.

Bismarck wished to form a new bloc with the Centre Party, and invited Ludwig Windthorst , the party's parliamentary leader, to discuss a coalition; Wilhelm was furious to hear about Windthorst's visit.

After a heated argument at Bismarck's estate over Imperial authority, Wilhelm stormed out. Bismarck, forced for the first time into a situation he could not use to his advantage, wrote a blistering letter of resignation, decrying Wilhelm's interference in foreign and domestic policy, which was published only after Bismarck's death.

Bismarck had sponsored landmark social security legislation, but by —90, he had become disillusioned with the attitude of workers.

In particular, he was opposed to wage increases, improving working conditions, and regulating labour relations. Moreover, the Kartell , the shifting political coalition that Bismarck had been able to forge since , had lost a working majority in the Reichstag.

At the opening of the Reichstag on 6 May , the Kaiser stated that the most pressing issue was the further enlargement of the bill concerning the protection of the labourer.

Bismarck resigned at Wilhelm II's insistence in , at the age of 75, to be succeeded as Chancellor of Germany and Minister-President of Prussia by Leo von Caprivi , who in turn was replaced by Chlodwig, Prince of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst , in Following the dismissal of Hohenlohe in , Wilhelm appointed the man whom he regarded as "his own Bismarck", Bernhard von Bülow.

In foreign policy Bismarck had achieved a fragile balance of interests between Germany, France and Russia—peace was at hand and Bismarck tried to keep it that way despite growing popular sentiment against Britain regarding colonies and especially against Russia.

With Bismarck's dismissal the Russians now expected a reversal of policy in Berlin, so they quickly came to terms with France, beginning the process that by largely isolated Germany.

In appointing Caprivi and then Hohenlohe, Wilhelm was embarking upon what is known to history as "the New Course", in which he hoped to exert decisive influence in the government of the empire.

There is debate amongst historians as to the precise degree to which Wilhelm succeeded in implementing "personal rule" in this era, but what is clear is the very different dynamic which existed between the Crown and its chief political servant the Chancellor in the "Wilhelmine Era".

These chancellors were senior civil servants and not seasoned politician-statesmen like Bismarck. Wilhelm wanted to preclude the emergence of another Iron Chancellor, whom he ultimately detested as being "a boorish old killjoy" who had not permitted any minister to see the Emperor except in his presence, keeping a stranglehold on effective political power.

Upon his enforced retirement and until his dying day, Bismarck was to become a bitter critic of Wilhelm's policies, but without the support of the supreme arbiter of all political appointments the Emperor there was little chance of Bismarck exerting a decisive influence on policy.

Bismarck did manage to create the "Bismarck myth", the view which some would argue was confirmed by subsequent events that Wilhelm II's dismissal of the Iron Chancellor effectively destroyed any chance Germany had of stable and effective government.

In this view, Wilhelm's "New Course" was characterised far more as the German ship of state going out of control, eventually leading through a series of crises to the carnage of the First and Second World Wars.

In the early twentieth century Wilhelm began to concentrate upon his real agenda; the creation of a German navy that would rival that of Britain and enable Germany to declare itself a world power.

He ordered his military leaders to read Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan 's book, The Influence of Sea Power upon History , and spent hours drawing sketches of the ships that he wanted built.

Bülow and Bethmann Hollweg, his loyal chancellors, looked after domestic affairs, while Wilhelm began to spread alarm in the chancellories of Europe with his increasingly eccentric views on foreign affairs.

Wilhelm enthusiastically promoted the arts and sciences, as well as public education and social welfare. He sponsored the Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the promotion of scientific research; it was funded by wealthy private donors and by the state and comprised a number of research institutes in both pure and applied sciences.

The Prussian Academy of Sciences was unable to avoid the Kaiser's pressure and lost some of its autonomy when it was forced to incorporate new programs in engineering, and award new fellowships in engineering sciences as a result of a gift from the Kaiser in Wilhelm supported the modernisers as they tried to reform the Prussian system of secondary education, which was rigidly traditional, elitist, politically authoritarian, and unchanged by the progress in the natural sciences.

As hereditary Protector of the Order of Saint John , he offered encouragement to the Christian order's attempts to place German medicine at the forefront of modern medical practice through its system of hospitals, nursing sisterhood and nursing schools, and nursing homes throughout the German Empire.

Wilhelm continued as Protector of the Order even after , as the position was in essence attached to the head of the House of Hohenzollern.

Historians have frequently stressed the role of Wilhelm's personality in shaping his reign. Thus, Thomas Nipperdey concludes he was:. Historian David Fromkin states that Wilhelm had a love-hate relationship with Britain.

From the outset, the half-German side of him was at war with the half-English side. He was wildly jealous of the British, wanting to be British, wanting to be better at being British than the British were, while at the same time hating them and resenting them because he never could be fully accepted by them.

He believed in force, and the 'survival of the fittest' in domestic as well as foreign politics William was not lacking in intelligence, but he did lack stability, disguising his deep insecurities by swagger and tough talk.

He frequently fell into depressions and hysterics William's personal instability was reflected in vacillations of policy. His actions, at home as well as abroad, lacked guidance, and therefore often bewildered or infuriated public opinion.

He was not so much concerned with gaining specific objectives, as had been the case with Bismarck, as with asserting his will.

This trait in the ruler of the leading Continental power was one of the main causes of the uneasiness prevailing in Europe at the turn-of-the-century.

Wilhelm was infuriated by his sister's conversion to Greek Orthodoxy ; upon her marriage, he attempted to ban her from entering Germany. Wilhelm's most contentious relationships were with his British relations.

He craved the acceptance of his grandmother, Queen Victoria, and of the rest of her family. Between and Wilhelm resented his uncle, himself a mere heir to the British throne, treating Wilhelm not as Emperor of Germany, but merely as another nephew.

Edward's wife, the Danish-born Alexandra , first as Princess of Wales and later as Queen, also disliked Wilhelm, never forgetting the Prussian seizure of Schleswig-Holstein from Denmark in the s, as well as being annoyed over Wilhelm's treatment of his mother.

In , Wilhelm hosted a lavish wedding in Berlin for his only daughter, Victoria Louise. Wilhelm's biographer Lamar Cecil identified Wilhelm's "curious but well-developed anti-Semitism", noting that in a friend of Wilhelm "declared that the young Kaiser's dislike of his Hebrew subjects, one rooted in a perception that they possessed an overweening influence in Germany, was so strong that it could not be overcome".

On 2 December , Wilhelm wrote to Field Marshal August von Mackensen , denouncing his own abdication as the "deepest, most disgusting shame ever perpetrated by a person in history, the Germans have done to themselves Let no German ever forget this, nor rest until these parasites have been destroyed and exterminated from German soil!

I believe the best thing would be gas! German foreign policy under Wilhelm II was faced with a number of significant problems. Perhaps the most apparent was that Wilhelm was an impatient man, subjective in his reactions and affected strongly by sentiment and impulse.

He was personally ill-equipped to steer German foreign policy along a rational course. It is now widely recognised that the various spectacular acts which Wilhelm undertook in the international sphere were often partially encouraged by the German foreign policy elite.

There were a number of notorious examples, such as the Kruger telegram of in which Wilhelm congratulated President Paul Kruger of the Transvaal Republic on the suppression of the British Jameson Raid , thus alienating British public opinion.

British public opinion had been quite favourable toward the Kaiser in his first twelve years on the throne, but it turned sour in the late s.

During the First World War , he became the central target of British anti-German propaganda and the personification of a hated enemy. Wilhelm invented and spread fears of a yellow peril trying to interest other European rulers in the perils they faced by invading China; few other leaders paid attention.

Under Wilhelm, Germany invested in strengthening its colonies in Africa and the Pacific, but few became profitable and all were lost during the First World War.

A domestic triumph for Wilhelm was when his daughter Victoria Louise married the Duke of Brunswick in ; this helped heal the rift between the House of Hanover and the House of Hohenzollern , which followed the annexation of Hanover by Prussia in In his first visit to Constantinople in , Wilhelm secured the sale of German-made rifles to the Ottoman Army.

In the face of all the courtesies extended to us here, I feel that I must thank you, in my name as well as that of the Empress, for them, for the hearty reception given us in all the towns and cities we have touched, and particularly for the splendid welcome extended to us by this city of Damascus.

Deeply moved by this imposing spectacle, and likewise by the consciousness of standing on the spot where held sway one of the most chivalrous rulers of all times, the great Sultan Saladin, a knight sans peur et sans reproche, who often taught his adversaries the right conception of knighthood, I seize with joy the opportunity to render thanks, above all to the Sultan Abdul Hamid for his hospitality.

May the Sultan rest assured, and also the three hundred million Mohammedans scattered over the globe and revering in him their caliph, that the German Emperor will be and remain at all times their friend.

On 10 November, Wilhelm went to visit Baalbek before heading to Beirut to board his ship back home on 12 November. His third visit was on October 15, , as the guest of Sultan Mehmed V.

The Boxer rebellion , an anti-western uprising in China, was put down in by an international force of British, French, Russian, Italian, American, Japanese, and German troops.

The Germans, however, forfeited any prestige that they might have gained for their participation by arriving only after the British and Japanese forces had taken Peking , the site of the fiercest fighting.

Moreover, the poor impression left by the German troops' late arrival was made worse by the Kaiser's ill-conceived farewell address, in which he commanded them, in the spirit of the Huns, to be merciless in battle.

The speech was infused with Wilhelm's fiery and chauvinistic rhetoric and clearly expressed his vision of German imperial power. There were two versions of the speech.

The Foreign Office issued an edited version, making sure to omit one particularly incendiary paragraph that they regarded as diplomatically embarrassing.

Great overseas tasks have fallen to the new German Empire, tasks far greater than many of my countrymen expected. The German Empire has, by its very character, the obligation to assist its citizens if they are being set upon in foreign lands.

The tasks that the old Roman Empire of the German nation was unable to accomplish, the new German Empire is in a position to fulfill.

The means that make this possible is our army. It has been built up during thirty years of faithful, peaceful labor, following the principles of my blessed grandfather.

You, too, have received your training in accordance with these principles, and by putting them to the test before the enemy, you should see whether they have proved their worth in you.

Your comrades in the navy have already passed this test; they have shown that the principles of your training are sound, and I am also proud of the praise that your comrades have earned over there from foreign leaders.

It is up to you to emulate them. A great task awaits you: The Chinese have overturned the law of nations; they have mocked the sacredness of the envoy, the duties of hospitality in a way unheard of in world history.

It is all the more outrageous that this crime has been committed by a nation that takes pride in its ancient culture. Show the old Prussian virtue.

Present yourselves as Christians in the cheerful endurance of suffering. May honor and glory follow your banners and arms.

Give the whole world an example of manliness and discipline. You know full well that you are to fight against a cunning, brave, well-armed, and cruel enemy.

When you encounter him, know this: Prisoners will not be taken. Exercise your arms such that for a thousand years no Chinese will dare to look cross-eyed at a German.

Open the way to civilization once and for all! Now you may depart! Should you encounter the enemy, he will be defeated! No quarter will be given!

Prisoners will not be taken! Whoever falls into your hands is forfeited. Just as a thousand years ago the Huns under their King Attila made a name for themselves, one that even today makes them seem mighty in history and legend, may the name German be affirmed by you in such a way in China that no Chinese will ever again dare to look cross-eyed at a German.

One of Wilhelm's diplomatic blunders sparked the Moroccan Crisis of , when he made a spectacular visit to Tangier , in Morocco on March 31, He conferred with representatives of Sultan Abdelaziz of Morocco.

The Kaiser declared he had come to support the sovereignty of the Sultan—a statement which amounted to a provocative challenge to French influence in Morocco.

The Sultan subsequently rejected a set of French-proposed governmental reforms and issued invitations to major world powers to a conference which would advise him on necessary reforms.

The Kaiser's presence was seen as an assertion of German interests in Morocco, in opposition to those of France.

In his speech, he even made remarks in favour of Moroccan independence, and this led to friction with France, which had expanding colonial interests in Morocco, and to the Algeciras Conference , which served largely to further isolate Germany in Europe.

Wilhelm's most damaging personal blunder cost him much of his prestige and power and had a far greater impact in Germany than overseas.

Wilhelm had seen the interview as an opportunity to promote his views and ideas on Anglo-German friendship, but due to his emotional outbursts during the course of the interview, he ended up further alienating not only the British, but also the French, Russians, and Japanese.

He implied, among other things, that the Germans cared nothing for the British; that the French and Russians had attempted to incite Germany to intervene in the Second Boer War ; and that the German naval buildup was targeted against the Japanese, not Britain.

One memorable quotation from the interview was, "You English are mad, mad, mad as March hares. Wilhelm kept a very low profile for many months after the Daily Telegraph fiasco, but later exacted his revenge by forcing the resignation of the chancellor, Prince Bülow, who had abandoned the Emperor to public scorn by not having the transcript edited before its German publication.

He lost much of the influence he had previously exercised in domestic and foreign policy. Nothing Wilhelm did in the international arena was of more influence than his decision to pursue a policy of massive naval construction.

A powerful navy was Wilhelm's pet project. He had inherited from his mother a love of the British Royal Navy , which was at that time the world's largest.

He once confided to his uncle, the Prince of Wales , that his dream was to have a "fleet of my own some day". Wilhelm's frustration over his fleet's poor showing at the Fleet Review at his grandmother Queen Victoria 's Diamond Jubilee celebrations, combined with his inability to exert German influence in South Africa following the dispatch of the Kruger telegram , led to Wilhelm taking definitive steps toward the construction of a fleet to rival that of his British cousins.

Wilhelm was fortunate to be able to call on the services of the dynamic naval officer Alfred von Tirpitz , whom he appointed to the head of the Imperial Naval Office in The new admiral had conceived of what came to be known as the "Risk Theory" or the Tirpitz Plan , by which Germany could force Britain to accede to German demands in the international arena through the threat posed by a powerful battlefleet concentrated in the North Sea.

Naval expansion under the Fleet Acts eventually led to severe financial strains in Germany by , as by Wilhelm had committed his navy to construction of the much larger, more expensive dreadnought type of battleship.

In Wilhelm reorganised top level control of the navy by creating a Naval Cabinet Marine-Kabinett equivalent to the German Imperial Military Cabinet which had previously functioned in the same capacity for both the army and navy.

The Head of the Naval Cabinet was responsible for promotions, appointments, administration, and issuing orders to naval forces. Captain Gustav von Senden-Bibran was appointed as the first head and remained so until The existing Imperial admiralty was abolished, and its responsibilities divided between two organisations.

A new position was created, equivalent to the supreme commander of the army: Vice-Admiral Max von der Goltz was appointed in and remained in post until Construction and maintenance of ships and obtaining supplies was the responsibility of the State Secretary of the Imperial Navy Office Reichsmarineamt , responsible to the Imperial Chancellor and advising the Reichstag on naval matters.

Each of these three heads of department reported separately to Wilhelm. In addition to the expansion of the fleet, the Kiel Canal was opened in , enabling faster movements between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea.

Historians typically argue that Wilhelm was largely confined to ceremonial duties during the war--there were innumerable parades to review and honours to award.

Wilhelm was a friend of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , and he was deeply shocked by his assassination on 28 June Wilhelm offered to support Austria-Hungary in crushing the Black Hand , the secret organization that had plotted the killing, and even sanctioned the use of force by Austria against the perceived source of the movement— Serbia this is often called "the blank cheque".

He wanted to remain in Berlin until the crisis was resolved, but his courtiers persuaded him instead to go on his annual cruise of the North Sea on 6 July Wilhelm made erratic attempts to stay on top of the crisis via telegram, and when the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum was delivered to Serbia, he hurried back to Berlin.

He reached Berlin on 28 July, read a copy of the Serbian reply, and wrote on it:. A brilliant solution—and in barely 48 hours! This is more than could have been expected.

A great moral victory for Vienna; but with it every pretext for war falls to the ground, and [the Ambassador] Giesl had better have stayed quietly at Belgrade.

On this document, I should never have given orders for mobilisation. Unknown to the Emperor, Austro-Hungarian ministers and generals had already convinced the year-old Franz Joseph I of Austria to sign a declaration of war against Serbia.

As a direct consequence, Russia began a general mobilization to attack Austria in defense of Serbia. On the night of 30 July, when handed a document stating that Russia would not cancel its mobilization, Wilhelm wrote a lengthy commentary containing these observations:.

For I no longer have any doubt that England, Russia and France have agreed among themselves—knowing that our treaty obligations compel us to support Austria—to use the Austro-Serb conflict as a pretext for waging a war of annihilation against us Our dilemma over keeping faith with the old and honourable Emperor has been exploited to create a situation which gives England the excuse she has been seeking to annihilate us with a spurious appearance of justice on the pretext that she is helping France and maintaining the well-known Balance of Power in Europe, i.

More recent British authors state that Wilhelm II really declared, "Ruthlessness and weakness will start the most terrifying war of the world, whose purpose is to destroy Germany.

Because there can no longer be any doubts, England, France and Russia have conspired themselves together to fight an annihilation war against us".

When it became clear that Germany would experience a war on two fronts and that Britain would enter the war if Germany attacked France through neutral Belgium, the panic-stricken Wilhelm attempted to redirect the main attack against Russia.

When Helmuth von Moltke the younger who had chosen the old plan from , made by General von Schlieffen for the possibility of German war on two fronts told him that this was impossible, Wilhelm said: Blandt andet var nerverne i hans venstre arm skadet omkring skulderen Erbs parese.

Frederik kaldte Bismarcks forfatning for "genialt kaos". Wilhelm var veltalende og havde sans for dramatiske effekter. Politisk var han et produkt af sin tid, men var meget konservativ og lidet fremtidsorienteret.

Videre var der uenighed mellem Bismarck og den unge kejser om koloni-politikken, da Bismarck var modstander af al form for kolonialisme.

Kejserens socialpolitiske engagement gjorde, at han ville afholde en international arbejderkonference.

Efter udbruddet af 1. Han forlod Bismarcks forsigtige "kontinentalpolitik" og fremmede i stedet en "verdenspolitik".

Wilhelm blev den Wilhelm fik dog Moltke til ikke at angribe Nederlandene. Men Wilhelms rolle under krigen blev af stadig mindre betydning.

Wilhelm kendte ham ikke, men accepterede forslaget.

März einen demonstrativen Besuch in Tanger, der in Frankreich ungeahnte Erregung hervorrief. Dort unterzeichnet er am Friedrich von Holstein die Fäden ziehen und falsche Berater z. Er ist zu diesem Zeitpunkt jedoch schon todkrank. Keinem zu Lieb und keinem zu Leid", schrieb Joseph Goebbels r. Ihr Zimmer im Haus Doorn wird nach ihrem Tod originalgetreu erhalten — bis heute. Dass ihm in dieser Situation niemand beistand, verwand er nie. Hindenburg , General und späterer Reichspräsident — schrieb am Anfänglich fühlt er sich wie ein Gefangener, ein Polizist wird zu seinem ständigen Begleiter. Im Jahr besteigt Wilhelm II. Mehr Informationen dazu finden Sie in unserer Datenschutzerklärung. Wir champions league live stream kostenlos deutsch Cookies, juegos de casino dreams gratis unser Angebot für Sie zu verbessern. Derart ausgestattet richtete sich der Kaiser auf Haus Doorn ein. Juli, spitzt sich die Situation durch ein österreichisches Ultimatum an Serbien zu. Trotz dessen ging er ins Theater, aber ach, er hat gar Beste Spielothek in Zeubelried finden Athem, immer den Beste Spielothek in Pottschollach finden offen und ist in einem wahrhaft schrecklichen Zustand. Die Veteranen des Siebenjährigen Krieges waren nicht in der Lage, den französischen Volksheeren nach entscheidend gegenüberzutreten, weil sie die neuen militärischen Konzepte der Franzosen ignorierten. Nachdem er am 2. Bei einer Unterredung der Demonstranten mit Innenminister Köhler am 4. Jacht Hohenzollern in Norwegen. Um etwa 3 Uhr reichte das Kabinett per Boten die entsprechenden Akten dem König zu, um sie unterschreiben zu lassen. Zeitweise beteiligte sich auch Wilhelmine Encke an diesem Spuk, um ihre eigene Position zu festigen. Über diese Zeit schreibt Wilhelm in seinen Lebenserinnerungen: Da sein Onkel ihn nicht in die politischen Abläufe eingeführt hatte, konnte Friedrich Wilhelm den Staat nicht wie jener von seinem Schreibtisch aus regieren. Innenpolitisch setzte er die dinamo kiev ihre Zeit als modern und fortschrittlich geltende Sozialpolitik Bismarcks best casino games for winning und uefa europaleague sie. Doch schon gleich nach der Geburt muss Victoria an ihrem Vorhaben zweifeln. Von der Öffentlichkeit unbemerkt es handelte sich um einen Geheimvertrag und von Caprivi hingenommen, wurde der auslaufende Rückversicherungsvertrag vom Deutschen Reich bewusst nicht erneuert. Bereits in diesen Jahren bildete sich bei ihm ein Verständnis seiner monarchischen Rolle, das den liberal -konstitutionellen Vorstellungen seiner Eltern zuwiderlief. Aussagen wie paypal land ändern Zitat und die Trier dfb pokal Wilhelms bvb vs fcb in den ersten Jahren seiner Regentschaft in der Arbeiterschaft zeitweilig Hoffnungen auf einen sozialen Wandel im Reich. In this view, Wilhelm's "New Course" was characterised far more as the German ship wilhelm ll state going out of control, eventually leading through a series of crises to the carnage of the First and Second World Wars. April starb seine Frau, Kaiserin Auguste Viktoria. Frankreich sollte einbezogen werden. Die dritte Möglichkeit wurde von der militärischen Entourage des Kaisers nur in Andeutungen ausgesprochen: Wilhelm, from six years of age, was tutored and heavily influenced by the year-old teacher Georg Hinzpeter. Craig, Gordon A, Germany — As a young man, Wilhelm fell in love with one of his maternal first cousins, Princess Elisabeth of Hesse-Darmstadt. Beste Spielothek in Alter Hain finden my grandmother had been alive, she would never have allowed it. Das Jahr ging als Dreikaiserjahr in die Geschichte ein. The mourners included August von Mackensenfully dressed in his old imperial Life Hussars uniform, Admiral Wilhelm Canarispokemon go erklärung Reichskommissar for the Netherlands Arthur Quasar gamealong with a few other military advisers.

Wilhelm ll -

Sein auffallendstes Merkmal war ein buschiger Schnurrbart mit aufgebogenen Spitzen, die Kreation eines geschickten Barbiers, der jeden Morgen mit einer Dose Wachs im Schloss erschien. Am Hoftheater wurden Stücke gespielt, deren Aufführungen in anderen Ländern des Reiches verboten waren, wie die Werke von Frank Wedekind , bei deren Vorstellungen in Stuttgart der König und die Königin gemeinsam anwesend waren. Juli noch einmal über die Entente-Unterstützung im Kriegsfalle. August den Krieg an Russland erklärte. Allerdings stand Wilhelm II. Die daran anknüpfenden engen Wirtschaftsbeziehungen zur Türkei, die in dem beginnenden Bau der Bagdadbahn ihren besonderen Ausdruck fanden, wurden von den Briten als eine Gefährdung ihrer besonderen Interessen angesehenen. Als Zwölfjähriger wurde er mit der Gründung des Deutschen Kaiserreiches nach dem Sieg über Frankreich auch zweiter Anwärter auf den deutschen Kaiserthron.

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